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Physics (23,653 Books)


 
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Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights of the Elements

By: Paul De Bievre

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: The first discovery of a stable isotope of an element, Ne, by J.J. Thomson in November 1912 started an era of more refined knowledge of the nature of the elements. This period continued until the report of the discovery of Ta by White, Collins and Rourke in 1955, the most recently reported new isotope. Tantalum had been previously believed to be mononuclidic with the only stable nuclide.

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Critical Review of Rate Constants for Reactions of Hydrated Electrons

By: George V. Buxton

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: In 1984, we published a survey of rate data for inelastic collision processes in diatomic halogen molecules; including both homonuclear (X, = Br, Cl, F, I,) and heteronuclear (XY = BrCl, BrF, BrI, ClF, ClI, and FI) species. Processes reviewed in the survey included electronic quenching, electronic t, vibrational energy transfer, vibrational relaxation, rotational relaxation, dephasing, depolarization, line broadening, and radiative decay. Theoretical treatm...

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Coupled Phase Diagram-Thermodynamic Analysis Of

By: Yves Dessureault

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Molten salt systems involving alkali carbonates and sulfates are of importance in hot corrosion, in electrochemical cells such as the molten carbonate fuel cell, and in many chemical and metallurgical applications. The present article reports coupled critical evaluations of phase diagram and thermodynamic data for several binary communication systems involving the equations Li+, Na+, K+ and the anions C1-, CO:-, F-, NO; UH-, SO:-. It forms part of a continu...

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Estimation of the Thermodynamic Properties of C-H-N-O-S-Halogen Co...

By: Eugene S. Domalski

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: This paper is the second part of a communication on the group-additivity method for the estimation of the heat capacities of liquids as a function of temperature (93RUZIDOMl). The main objective of the project was to develop a second-order group-additivity method for organic compounds including both hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbons. The method follows the definition of groups according to Benson and coworkers (58BENBUS, 69BENl CRU).

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Thermal Spray Coatings Workshop : Sensors, Modeling and Control St...

Technical Reference Publication

Summary: The NIST Metallurgy Division has initiated a research program to investigate coatings produced by thermal spray (TS) techniques. The focus of this research is the development of measurement tools that will aid in the understanding and/or control of the plasma spray process. This process uses plasma jets (generated by either DC or AC arcs) to melt or soften coating feed-stocks and then propel this material onto various substrates. The geometry and operating param...

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Behavior of the Ab-Type Compounds

By: Leo Merrill

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: This is the second in a series of papers on the subject of the behavior of materials at high pressure. In a previous paper 1411, data on polymorphic phase changes and melting curves have been compiled and evaluated for the elements. This review is a continuation of that effort, and deals with the AB-type compounds. The types of data included are mainly the thermodynamic parameters of the solid-solid phase boundaries and melting curves. In most of the studie...

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Rate Constants for Reactions of Inorganic Radicals in Aqueous Solution

By: Pedatsur Neta

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Since the publication of the original compilation on this topic in 1979' the number of measured rate constants for reactions of inorganic radicals has more than doubled. Because of the importance of these radicals as basic chemical species, in the study of electron transfer theory, as well as in atmospheric and industrial processes, it is necessary to update the compilation. The present tables include the rate constants presented in the original compilation...

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Experimental Stark Widths and Shifts for Spectral Lines

By: N. Konjevic

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: With this tabulation we continue the series of critical reviews and tables on experimental Stark broadening data for spectral lines of non-hydrogenic atoms and ions which we started in 19761 and updated in 1984. In this new installment, we cover the period from 1983 to the end of 1988, and we have now merged the data on atoms and ions into a single set of tables. But in all other respects we have adhered to the format of our previous reviews, and we have su...

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Spectral Data and Grotrian Diagrams for Highly Ionized

By: Toshizo Shirai

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: We have undertaken to publish a series of compilations of spectra of highly ionized atoms of particular interest to the fusion energy community. These selected elements occur as impurities in wall materials of fusion machines or are internally injected into the hot plasmas for diagnostics. Much new work on these spectra has appeared in recent years. We have critically compiled these data into single publications for each element; each publication includes w...

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Critical Review of Rate Constants for Reactions of Transients from...

By: George V. Buxton

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: This publication is the first supplement to the set of data sheets of critically evaluated data for combustion processes published in the Journal of Chemical Reference Data 21, 41 1-734...

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Selected Values of Heats of Combustion and Heats of Formation of O...

By: Eugene S. Domelski

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: As part of a continuing program of collecting and evaluating data on the thermodynamic properties of organic compounds, selected values are reported here for the heats of combustion and heats of formation of 719 organic compounds containing the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur (CHNOPS). Certain classes of compounds, such as amino acids, carbohydrates, glyceryl esters, and peptides, have been covered exhaustively because of...

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Liquid-Liquid Demixing from Solutions of Polystyrene 1. A Review 2...

By: Attila Imre

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: This study of the neutral oxygen fluorides is the first of four critical reviews on the thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of the halogen oxides. An earlier partial study on...

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High Temperature Properties and Decomposition of Inorganic Salts

By: Kurt H. Stem

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Volumetric characteristics (such as solution density, apparent molal volumes. ionic apparent volumes, etc.) of multiple-solute electrolyte solutions in a wide range of solute concentrations and solution temperatures are of fundamental importance for the understanding of numerous physicochemical processes occurring in various branches of the chemical industry as well as in the natural environment. The most important application of the volumetric solution pro...

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Advances and Applications of DSmT for Information Fusion (Collecte...

By: Florentin Smarandache; Jean Dezert

Applications demonstrate the power of the DSmT framework. In this third Volume, DSmT is applied to the entire spectrum of the Information Fusion that would interest any reader in data, sensor, information, and mathematical fusion topics. Highlighted in Figure 1 are the contemporary issues that include the links between (1) data conditioning and information management, (2) combined situation and impact assessment, and (2) knowledge representation between machine processin...

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